är den gränsdragning i Hindu Kush, vilken
verenskoms i Durandfrdraget 1893, och som
fortfarande utgr gränsen mellan Afganistan
och Pakistan. Avtalet skrevs under av härskaren
i Kabul fr Afganistan och av dåvarande
vicekonungen uti Brittiska Indien!
Hur som helst så medfrde kriget 1878-80 att området bebott av Pashtunstammen delades tvärsigenom av Durand. "The tribal area was divided into roughly equal spheres of influence". På den brittisk-indiska sidan (nuvarande pakistanska sidan) frekom sen flera stamuppror men inga alls på den afganska sidan. Folket som bodde där erkände aldrig gränsen, de hade inte behov av någon gräns där mr Durand drog den. Att Pastunerna egentligen bort få ett eget land — står väl numera klart fr alla?
En referens till läget i april 2003, från en amerikansk tidning:
For months, Afghan and US intelligence officials have warned about a regrouping of Al Qaeda and the Taliban on both sides of the porous Afghan-Pakistani border. More ominous still for the war in Afghanistan is the reported alliance of America's enemies with old friends from the Soviet war, namely the radical Islamist party Hizb-i Islami. Some leaflets signed by Hizb and Taliban leaders have even called on Muslims to join an all-out jihad or holy struggle against American forces timed to the beginning of America's war in Iraq.
Afghanistan. Die Koinzidenz der Ereignisse /Manhattan/ und die Hinweise auf den gleichen Urheber werfen ein grelles Licht auf das grosse Verhängnis Afghanistans: Ausgebeutet von der Kolonialmacht Grossbritannien, gedemütigt von russischen Besetzern, zerstrt von kriegslüsternen Stammesfürsten und schliesslich erobert von fanatischen im benachbarten Pakistan ausgebildeten Islamisten steht das bitterarme Gebirgsland heute im Brennpunkt des blutigen Konfliktes zwischen den Gross- und Supermächten und einem global operierenden Terror-Netzwerk, dass der halben Welt im Namen Allahs den Krieg erklärt hat.
Dass Bin Laden den Angelpunkt der aktuellen Eskalation darstellt, ist dabei keineswegs Zufall. Der reiche saudische Erbe und skrupellose Fanatiker ist genau jene Schlüsselfigur, die wie keine andere die verhängnisvolle Verstrickung Afghanistans in die Weltpolitik dokumentiert. Die Taten Bin Ladens und seiner Anhänger sind nicht zuletzt auch ein Preis für die Skrupellosigkeit, mit der die beiden Supermächte während des Kalten Krieges das Volk der Afghanen für ihre Zwecke instrumentalisierten.
Only justice, not bombs, can make our dangerous world a safer place
By Robert Fisk
We have gone on smashing away at the human rights we trumpeted at the Russians - and the Arabs - during the Cold War. We have perhaps fatally weakened all those provisions that were written into our treaties and conventions in the aftermath of the Second World War to make the world a safer place. And we claim we are winning.
The current US thinking leans towards equipping
select Pashtun tribes to fight the Taliban and
al-Qaeda. It is a controversial move that worries the
Pakistani military, as it might ignite violence in
the Pashtun regions inside Pakistan and fuel the
Besides, Obana has bluntly warned that he would get the US Special Forces to strike inside the Pakistani territory if the security situation warranted. Such moves will be seen by the Pakistani military as a humiliating slap on its face. [ ... ]
What is more disconcerting for the Pakistani military is the likelihood that Obana's "exit strategi" will emphasize the rapid build-up of a 134,000-strong Afghan national army. [ ... ]
However, the law of diminishing returns begins to work for the Pakistani military once an Afghan national army gains traction. Indeed, an Afghan army will, most certainly, be led by ethnic Tajik officers. [ ... ]
The Tourist Map I have from the early 70's labels
the Pakistan side of the border as Pastunstan. The
Afghans Parliment has officially rejected the Durand
1. It was coerced under the threat of continued military aggression.
2. It was cosigned by an entity that no longer exists British India.
Socialism, Afghanistan swung from a Benign Parlimentary Monarchy to Socialism though a series of coups. It was exactly when a progressive socialist government was implementing Gender and Agrarian equity that the USA armed rebelling regressive reactionaries. Settting in motion twenty years of massive warfare. And it was exactly when the Taliban ended twenty years of warfare and pacified Afghanistan that the USA attacked and initiated another decade of (and still counting) warfare. Asphalt, the Russians provided asphalt also and one of the longest highest tunnels in the world linking Kabul with the Soviet Union. As the Soviets retreated through this miles long intermitent tunnel, the Mujahdeen RPGed a petrol tanker at the head of the column in the tunnel and proceded to massacre much of the miles long convoy. Sorta like when they slaughtered all but one soldier in the second invasion by the British as the entire British army retreated enmass. Christianity, Remember events often have many causes, and the cabbie slasher was a missionary embedded with the invaders. "Vanity Fair" had an expose' on the fanatical Christian group that many Politicians join when they arrive in DC.
transumt: Commondreams aug 2010
"...The single-page agreement which contains
seven short articles was signed by H. M. Durand and
Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, agreeing not to exercise
interference beyond the frontier line between
Afghanistan and what was then colonial British India
(now Pakistan). A joint British-Afghan demarcation
survey took place starting from 1894, covering some
800 miles of the border. The resulting
Line established the "Great Game" buffer
zone between British and Russian interests in the
region. This poorly marked border cuts through the
Pashtun tribal area and lies in one of the most
dangerous places in the world. Although
shown on most maps as the western international
border of Pakistan, it is unrecognized by
Afghanistan. ..." Note that it "cuts
through the Pashtun tribal area." Standard
imperial practice: create a "national"
border that breaks up or disrupts long-established
tribal relationships, fomenting dissension and
hostilities. If the Durand Line "is unrecognized
by Afghanistan," for the Pashtun it is mere
fiction. Thus the "porous"
"border" between Pakistan and Afghanistan;
for the Pashtun there is no such
(We find similar issues in "Kurdistan" involving at least THREE "nations" having significant Kurdish minorities. It would seem that most Kurds seek their own nation, a fact that makes for continuous tension to which pressure points may be applied at will in many circumstances. (Some argue that the imperialists who created these synthetic borders were just ignorant of the relevant cultures; others argue that it was intentional so as to retain levers of power in the relevant regions.)
You be the judge. -30-